History

In the US, ketorolac is the only widely available intravenous NSAID. An IV form of paracetemol, which is not an NSAID, became available in Europe in 2009 and then in the US.[13]

The Syntex company, of Palo Alto, California developed the ophthalmic solution Acular around 2006.[citation needed]

In 2007, there were concerns about the high incidence of reported side effects. This led to restriction in its dosage and maximum duration of use. In the UK, treatment was initiated only in a hospital, although this was not designed to exclude its use in prehospital care and mountain rescue settings.[7] Dosing guidelines were published at that time.[22]

Concerns over the high incidence of reported side effects with ketorolac trometamol led to its withdrawal (apart from the ophthalmic formulation) in several countries, while in others its permitted dosage and maximum duration of treatment have been reduced. From 1990 to 1993, 97 reactions with a fatal outcome were reported worldwide.[23]

The eye-drop formulation was approved by the FDA in 1992.[24]

An intranasal formulation was approved by the FDA in 2010[25] for short-term management of moderate to moderately severe pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level.

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Ketorolac Tromethamine Monograph for Professionals”Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. pp. 1144, 1302–1303. ISBN 9780857113382.
  3. ^ “DailyMed – ketorolac tromethamine tablet, film coated”dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  4. ^ Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 521. ISBN 9783527607495.
  5. ^ “NADAC as of 2019-02-27”Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  6. ^ “The Top 300 of 2019”clincalc.com. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Mallinson, Tom (2017). “A review of ketorolac as a prehospital analgesic”Journal of Paramedic Practice9 (12): 522–526. doi:10.12968/jpar.2017.9.12.522. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Vallerand AH (2017). Davis’s Drug Guide for Nurses. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. p. 730. ISBN 9780803657052.
  9. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Physician’s Desk Reference 2017. Montvale, New Jersey: PDR, LLC. 2017. pp. S–474–5. ISBN 9781563638381.
  10. ^ “Ketorolac-tromethamine”The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  11. Jump up to:a b Henry, p. 291.
  12. ^ Henry, p. 280.
  13. Jump up to:a b c Martin LD, Jimenez N, Lynn AM (2017). “A review of perioperative anesthesia and analgesia for infants: updates and trends to watch”F1000Research6: 120. doi:10.12688/f1000research.10272.1PMC 5302152PMID 28232869.
  14. Jump up to:a b Schwier N, Tran N (March 2016). “Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Aspirin Therapy for the Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Idiopathic Pericarditis”Pharmaceuticals9 (2): 17. doi:10.3390/ph9020017PMC 4932535PMID 27023565.
  15. ^ Gonzalez-Salinas R, Guarnieri A, Guirao Navarro MC, Saenz-de-Viteri M (2016). “Patient considerations in cataract surgery – the role of combined therapy using phenylephrine and ketorolac”Patient Preference and Adherence10: 1795–1801. doi:10.2147/PPA.S90468PMC 5029911PMID 27695298.
  16. ^ Karch A (2017). Focus on nursing pharmacology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. p. 272. ISBN 9781496318213.
  17. ^ Lim BX, Lim CH, Lim DK, Evans JR, Bunce C, Wormald R (November 2016). “Prophylactic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the prevention of macular oedema after cataract surgery”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews11: CD006683. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006683.pub3PMC 6464900PMID 27801522.
  18. ^ Sivaprasad S, Bunce C, Crosby-Nwaobi R (February 2012). “Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for treating cystoid macular oedema following cataract surgery”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD004239. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004239.pub3PMID 22336801.
  19. ^ Wakai A, Lawrenson JG, Lawrenson AL, Wang Y, Brown MD, Quirke M, et al. (May 2017). “Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for analgesia in traumatic corneal abrasions”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews5: CD009781. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009781.pub2PMC 6481688PMID 28516471.
  20. Jump up to:a b Henry, p. 279.
  21. ^ Lee IO, Seo Y (March 2008). “The effects of intrathecal cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, or nonselective inhibitors on pain behavior and spinal Fos-like immunoreactivity”. Anesthesia and Analgesia106 (3): 972–7, table of contents. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e318163f602PMID 18292448.
  22. ^ MHRA Drug Safety Update October 2007, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 3-4.
  23. ^ Committee on the Safety of Medicines, Medicines Control Agency: Ketorolac: new restrictions on dose and duration of treatment. Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance:June 1993; Volume 19 (pages 5-8).
  24. ^ “Ketorolac ophthalmic medical facts from”. Drugs.com. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
  25. ^ “Sprix Information from”. Drugs.com. Retrieved 2013-10-06.

Bibliography[edit]